Cell group is a form of church organization that is used in some Christian churches. Cell groups are generally intended to teach the Bible and personalize Christian fellowship. They are always used in cell churches, but also occur in parachurch organizations and other interdenominational settings, where they are usually referred to as such as Bible study groups. They are known by a variety of other names, including growth groups, connect groups, care groups, life groups, fellowship groups, small groups and home groups. David Hunsicker suggests that the "cell" group concept in church structure "is becoming prominent in almost every denomination in American Protestantism."
The cell group differs from the house church in that the group is part of an overall church congregation, whereas the house church is a self-contained congregation.
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The term cell group is derived from biology: the cell is the basic unit of life in a body. In a metaphorical sense, just as a body is made up of many cells that give it life, the cell church is made of cell groups that give it life.
Colin Marshall uses the term "growth group", suggesting that the aim is for group members to "grow in Christ", and, through the group, for the gospel to "grow and bear fruit."
Another term, typically employed in Missional Communities, is huddle. This refers to a small group in which discipleship is emphasized and in which membership is by invitation only.
David Hunsicker points out that while house churches are mentioned in the New Testament, the institution of a "well-organized, structured church" resulted in the decline of the small home groups. The concept was resurrected at the time of the Protestant Reformation and "Ulrich Zwingli inadvertently pushed the Anabaptists in the direction of small groups when he started meeting with a small gathering of men who were interested in learning New Testament Greek. The concept of small groups was revived again in the late seventeenth century by Anthony Horneck in Great Britain and Philipp Jacob Spener in Germany.
Spener published his Pia Desideria in 1675 and laid out his program for the reformation of the Lutheran Church, emphasising the use of small groups. He suggested the reintroduction of "the ancient and apostolic kind of church meetings," held "in the manner in which Paul describes them in 1 Corinthians 14:26–40." Spener goes on to suggest
This might conveniently be done by having several ministers (in places where a number of them live in a town) meet together or by having several members of a congregation who have a fair knowledge of God or desire to increase their knowledge meet under the leadership of a minister, take up the Holy Scriptures, read aloud from them, and fraternally discuss each verse in order to discover its simple meaning and what- ever may be useful to the edification of all. Anybody who is not satisfied with his understanding of a matter should be permitted to express his doubts and seek further explanation. On the other hand those (including the ministers) who have made progress should be allowed the freedom to state how they understand each passage. Then all that has been contributed, insofar as it accords with the sense of the Holy Spirit in the Scriptures, should be carefully considered by the rest, especially by the ordained ministers, and applied to the edification of the whole meeting.
Influenced by Pietist conventicles, John Wesley took on the concept of small groups, and has been called the "Father" of the modern small-group concept. John Wesley formed societies to "bring small numbers of people together (usually twelve) to pray, read the Bible and listen to exhortations, and to encourage and enjoy each other's company."
Cell groups are made of small numbers of Christians, often between 6 and 12, and led by a cell leader. Members may be in the same cell group because of common locality, schools or interests. Cell meetings are usually not conducted in the church sanctuary, if any, but in any of the members' homes, rooms in the church building or other third-party venues.
Cell meetings may consist of a fellowship meal, communion, prayer, worship, sharing or Bible study and discussion.
The use of small Bible study groups is related, but not exclusively associated with, the large churches sometimes called megachurches. In these congregations, small groups perform much of the ministerial work of the church, including teaching the Bible. David Hunsicker suggests that Willow Creek Community Church "has exploded through an effective use of small group strategy."
A number of lesson plans, workbooks, and programs have been developed to facilitate the study of the Bible in small groups. The Alpha Course, originally developed in a Church of England context, but now ecumenical, is one such course intended for use by small groups that provides a synoptic introduction to the entire Bible. The more theologically evangelical Christianity Explored course was devised as an evangelical response to the Alpha Course. Other denominations have similar resources available, such as the Roman Catholic Great Adventure Catholic Bible Study and the United Methodist Church's Disciple series.